The first part of the title comes from Meher Baba, who was Pete Townshend's spiritual guru. The second part comes from Terry Riley, an experimental, minimalist composer Townshend admired - many of the keyboard riffs and sound effects on Who's Next were a result of Riley's influence. According to the Who's Next liner notes, Townshend wrote it as his vision of what would happen if the spirit of Meher Baba was fed into a computer and transformed into music. The result would be Baba in the style of Terry Riley, or "Baba O'Riley."
The title is not mentioned in the lyrics, so the song is often referred to as "Teenage Wasteland." The "Teenage Wasteland" section was a completely different song Townshend combined with his "Baba O'Riley" idea to form the song.
Pete Townshend spent a few weeks in his home studio putting together the part that sounds like a synthesizer on a Lowry organ. His goal: to create "a replication of the electronic music of the future."
When he took the tape of his recording to engineer Glyn Johns, he expected Johns to alter it, but Johns left it as is, insisting it was perfect.
While Townsend's keyboard playing is legendary and brilliant, it's not quite what it seems. Townshend played a Lowrey TBO-1 organ at his home studio. He tried to run it through an ARP synthesizer/sequencer, but couldn't get the sound he was looking for. Instead, he used the "marimba repeat" setting on his Lowrey to create the arpeggiated, complex repeating pattern.
This is the first song on Who's Next, the most successful album of The Who's career. Although this is one of the most popular Who songs, it was never released as a single in America or the UK. It was, however, the perfect song for the up-and-coming Album Oriented Rock (AOR) format that was picking up steam on FM radio. Always played in moderation, "Baba" became a Classic Rock staple and remains on many playlists.
When The Who perform this live, the processed organ is played from a recording, since it would be nearly impossible to replicate on an instrument. The guitar doesn't come in until 1:40, giving Pete Townshend some time to reflect on his work. "There is this moment of standing there just listening to this music and looking out to the audience and just thinking, 'I f--king did that. I wrote that," he told Rolling Stone. "I just hope that on my deathbed I don't embarrass myself by asking someone, 'Can you pass me my guitar? And will you run the backing tape of 'Baba O'Riley'? I just want to do it one more time."
This marked one of the first times a keyboard/synthesizer was used to form the rhythm of a rock song, rather than employing it as a lead instrument.
Regarding the phrase "Teenage Wasteland":
Lifehouse is set in a time where most of England is a polluted wasteland. Townshend described it as: "A self-sufficient drop-out family group farming in a remote part of Scotland decide to return South to investigate rumors of a subversive concert event that promises to shake and wake up apathetic, fearful British society. Ray is married to Sally, they hope to link up with their daughter Mary who has run away from home to attend the concert. They travel through the scarred wasteland of middle England in a motor caravan, running an air conditioner they hope will protect them from pollution."
As for the "teenage" bit, Townshend said: "There are regular people, but they're the scum off the surface; there's a few farmers there, that's where the thing from 'Baba O'Riley' comes in. It's mainly young people who are either farmer's kids whose parents can't afford to buy them experience suits; then there's just scum, like these two geezers who ride around in a battered-up old Cadillac limousine and they play old Who records on the tape deck... I call them Track fans." So basically, teenagers traveling across the wasteland to attend this concert.
The famous violin part was performed by Dave Arbus of the group East of Eden, who created what many consider the first Celtic Rock song with Jig a Jig
According to Rolling Stone
magazine's 500 Greatest Songs Of All Time, this violin jig at the end was drummer Keith Moon's idea. In concert, Roger Daltrey would play the jig on harmonica.
This began as part of Townshend's "Lifehouse" project, which is a film script he wrote. The playscript was published in 1999 by Pocket Books, Great Britain. In the screenplay of "Lifehouse," Townshend wrote about the composer (Bobby) setting up the concert: "An experiment Bobby conducts in which each participant [in the concert] is both blueprint and inspiration for a unique piece of music or song which will feature largely in the first event to be hacked onto the grid."
Townshend subsequently decided to actually pursue this, which he did through lifehouse-method.com
Townshend was never able to convince anyone to do the Lifehouse film, and he more or less gave up on that - but he never gave up on having it produced. He revised the script to be more relevant to the world of the Internet (which had caught up with his 1971 concept of a global grid), and to incorporate thoughts and insights he'd had in the ensuing 25+ years, and it was performed on BBC3
on December 5, 1999. A recording of that performance (along with a lot of additional material) is available from Townshend's mercantile website eelpie.com
The final version of the song runs 5:01, but Townshend's instrumental synthesizer demo of the song was a healthy 9:48. This demo was released in 1972 on a Meher Baba tribute album called I Am.
In an interview with Billboard magazine carried out in February 2010, Townshend discussed how he feels now that 40 years on this and other Who songs take on a deeper meaning. He explained that when he wrote the band's classic tunes, "the music there was about living in the present and losing yourself in the moment. Now that has changed. Boomers kind of hang on to that as a memory.When I go back and listen to those songs, the Who songs in particular of the late '60s and early 70s, there was an aspiration in my writing to attune to the fact that what I could feel in he audience was - I won't say religious - but there was certainly a spiritual component to what people wanted their music to contain. There's definitely a higher call for the music now which is almost religious. U2, for example, are hugely successful with songs about inner longing for freedom, ideas.
A song like 'Baba O'Riley,' with 'we're all wasted,' it just meant 'we're all wasted' - it didn't have the significance that it now has. What we fear is that in actual fact we have wasted an opportunity. I think I speak for my audience when I say that, I hope I do."
This is the theme song for the TV show CSI New York
. The original CSI
uses "Who Are You," and CSI Miami
uses "Won't Get Fooled Again
This was used in commercials for the 2000 Nissan Pathfinder, and also appeared in ads for Cisco. The Who lost a lot of money on bad business deals in their early years and decided to cash in when they were offered big bucks for commercials.
This quickly became a concert favorite for The Who. Live versions of this song can be found on the albums The Kids Are Alright (1978), Concerts for the People of Kampuchea (1979), Who's Last (1982), The Blues To The Bush (1999) and The Who & Special Guests Live at the Royal Albert Hall video (2000).
In 2007, the song was covered by The Blue Man Group for the TV show America's Got Talent
. Since then, it has become a staple at Blue Man Group shows.
While Townsend's keyboard playing is legendary and brilliant, it's not quite what it seems. When the song was recorded, the band's newly purchased Lowry organ came with a very special feature: a pedal that, when pressed, would repeat each note played three times in succession. (Source: interstitial on 97.1FM The Mountain, Denver, Colorado - thanks, S.D. - Denver, CO)
Spike Lee used this in his movie Summer of Sam
, and a fully orchestrated version was used at the beginning of the movie Slackers
. It was also used in an episode of the TV show House
This song was used for Part 3 of the VH1 special The Drug Years
about drug use in the 1970s. It showed how drugs went from a religious experience in the '60s to just getting "Wasted" in the '70s.
This was used at the end of the trailer for the film The Girl Next Door
. The movie encompasses some of the dramas of teenage life.